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The molecular network governing nodule

ARTICLE

Received 14 Jan 2010 |Accepted 5 Mar 2010 |Published 12 Apr 2010DOI:10.1038/nc omms1009

The molecular network governing nodule

o rganogenesis and infection in the model legume L otus japonicus

L ene H. M adsen 1,Le?la Tirichine1,?,A nna J urkiewicz 1,J ohn T. S ullivan 2,A nne B. H eckmann 1,A nita S. B ek 1,

Clive W.Ronson2,E uan K. J ames 3&J ens S tougaard 1

B acterial infection of interior tissues of legume root nodules is controlled at the epidermal

cell layer and is closely coordinated with progressing organ development. Using spontaneous

nodulating L otus japonicus plant mutants to uncouple nodule organogenesis from infection, we

have determined the role of 16 genes in these two developmental processes. We show that host-

encoded mechanisms control three alternative entry processes operating in the epidermis, the

root cortex and at the single cell level. Single cell infection did not involve the formation of trans-

cellular infection threads and was independent of host Nod-factor receptors and bacterial Nod-

factor signals. In contrast, Nod-factor perception was required for epidermal root hair infection

threads, whereas primary signal transduction genes preceding the secondary Ca 2 +oscillations

have an indirect role. We provide support for the origin of rhizobial infection through direct

intercellular epidermal invasion and subsequent evolution of crack entry and root hair invasions

observed in most extant legumes.

1D epartment of Molecular Biology, Centre for Carbohydrate Recognition and Signalling, Aarhus University ,G ustav Wieds Vej 10 ,A arhus C D K-8000 ,

D enmark .2D epartment of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56 ,D unedin 9054 ,N ew Zealand .3

E PI division, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie ,D undee D D2 5DA ,U K .?P resent address: G én omique, Environnementale et Evolutive Section 3 CNRS UMR8197, Institut de Biologie de l ’E cole Normale Sup ér ieure (IBENS), 46 rue d ’U lm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France (L.T.). Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to J.S. ( s [email protected] ).

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 1:10 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1009 | http://www.622132.tw/doc/b1954836ee06eff9aef80751.html/naturecommunications1

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