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高中英語句子成分分析講解+即時練習鞏固

第1講句子成分

英語的句子成分主要有六種:即主語、謂語、賓語、定語、狀語和補語。(可以熟記為:主謂賓,定狀補)

除了這六種主要成分之外,還有“表語”和“同位語”的說法。但表語和系動詞一起作謂語,因此劃分成分時,劃分在謂語上。同位語分為主語同位語和賓語同位語,屬于主語或賓語的一部分。

考點1.劃分句子成分時的常用符號

英語中劃句子成分的符號

主語在下面劃一直線

謂語在下面劃曲線

賓語在下面劃雙橫線

定語在下面劃虛線(一行點使我們想到一

排釘子,“釘”諧音為“定語” 的“定”)狀語下面為短橫線(短橫線使我們想到短

木樁,木樁撞(狀)鐘)

補語上一短橫,下一短橫(下一短橫好像是

為了彌補上面短橫間的空隙)同位語上下雙曲線,(雖都有曲折,上下位置

基本相同

考點2.主語

主語是一個句子所敘述的主體,一般位于句首,通常由名詞性的詞來充當。

可以作主語的詞性或語法結構:

1.名詞

2.代詞

3.數詞

4.名詞化的形容詞(如the rich)

5.不定式

6.動名詞

7.主語從句等表示。

練習1.在下面句子的主語下面劃橫線,并說出由什么充當

1.During the 1990s, American country music has

become more and more popular.

2.We often speak English in class.

3.One-third of the students in this class are girls.

4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure.

5.Smoking does harm to the health.

6.The rich should help the poor.

7.When we are going to have an English test has not

been decided.

8.It is necessary to master a foreign language.

9.That he isn?t at home is not true

練習2.改正下列句中的錯誤,并說明原因

1.He failed the exam is the reason why he dropped

out.

2.That why he was late for school was that his mother

was ill.

3.Beyond the mountains lie a small village.

4.Gone is the days when I had to go to school on foot.

5.Play basketball is my favorite sport.

6.Give up English is not an option.

考點3.謂語

謂語由動詞充當,說明主語所做的動作或具有的特征和狀態。謂語的構成如下:

1、簡單謂語:由一個動詞或動詞短語構成。如:

He practices running every morning.

He reads newspapers every day.

2、復合謂語:

(1)由情態動詞或其他助動詞加動詞構成。如:You may keep the book for two weeks.

He has caugh t a bad cold.

My sister is crying over there.

I have been waiting for you all the time.

I would stay at home all day.

(2)由系動詞加表語構成。系動詞不能單獨作謂語,要和表語一起作謂語。如:

We are students.

Your idea sounds great.

考點4.表語

表語多是形容詞,用以說明主語的身份、特征和狀態,它一般位于系動詞(如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等)之后。表語一般由名詞、代詞、形容詞、分詞、數詞、不定式、動名詞、介詞短語、副詞及表語從句表示。

練習3.劃出下列句中的表語,并說明有什么充當。

1.Our teacher of English is an American.

2.Is it yours?

3.The weather has turned cold.

4.The speech is exciting.

5.Three times seven is twenty one.

6.His job is to teach English.

7.His hobby(愛好)is playing football.

8.The machine must be under repairs.

9.The truth is that he has never been abroad.

考點5.賓語

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